Our Glossary is here to help you with some of the terms commonly used within our industry. We hope this is of some use to you but if you have any further questions please Contact Us, alternatively please visit our main site at www.advancedseals.com or visit our Intranet site at mrp.advancedseals.co.uk where you will find further information.
Absorption – Dissipation or loss of electromagnetic energy in the medium through which the energy passes. Measured in decibels (dB).
Absorption – The attraction of two dissimilar substances. Compare COHESION.
Adhesive – Sealant
Adhesive Sealant – A material which can perform as both an adhesive and environmental sealant.
AG/BR – Silver-plated brass.
Arrestance – The capacity of air filter to capture and hold particulate material or dust.
Attenuation – A loss of energy. Generally expressed in decibels.
Bleed – To exude a liquid or gaseous material.
Bond – Mechanical Joining of objects by means of adhesion.
BUNA – N
Buna N – A synthetic rubber compound useful in applications involving exposure to jet fuels, e.g. JP-1 through JP-6.
Bus – A metallic electrical conductor used to make a common electrical connection.
Butyl – A synthetic rubber made by polymerisation of butylene and isoprene or butadiene. Useful in applications involving exposure to phosphate type hydraulic fluids.
Choke Flange – A waveguide flange having a mating surface designed with a slot to restrict leakage of electromagnetic energy.
CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING
Chromate Conversion Coating – A surface protection treatment frequently used in shielding applications/ Although non-conductive itself, the chromate conversion coating is easily penetrated by EMI gasket materials when pressure is applied. This low cost finish is usually applied in accordance with MIL-C-5541. cm Centimetre.
Cohesion – The mutual attraction by which the elements of material cling to each other. Compare ADHESION in which the elements of a material cling to the elements of different material.
Compression set – The percent of permanent height reduction in a material caused by compression under specific conditions of load, temperature and time.
Compression Stop – A material, which acts to limit, further compression of a gasket material. Used when a specified gap is required to avoid damage to gasket materials due to overcompression.
Conductance – A measure of the ability of a material to conduct electric current. The reciprocal of the resistance of the material expressed in ohms.
Conductivity – Conductance of a unit cube of any material. Reciprocal of the volume resistivity, expressed in ohms per centimetre.
Contact Resistance – The resistance in ohms between two metal objects in contact with each other.
Creep – The diameter change in time of a material under load.
Cure – To change the physical properties of a material by chemical reaction through the action of heat or catalysts or a combination of the two.
Decibel (db) – A dimensionless unit for expressing the ratio of two values of power (10 log P-¹/P²) voltage (20 log E¹/E²).
Dielectric Strength – The maximum potential gradient an insulating (dielectric) material can withstand before it breaks down (volts per mil).
Dry Back – Solvent activated dry adhesive for permanent mounting of EMI gaskets, which use solid or sponge neoprene rubber.
Dynamic Range – The ratio of the specified maximum signal level capability of a system to its noise level. Usually expressed in decibels.
Elastomer – Any of various polymers having elastic properties similar to natural rubber.
ELECTRIC OR E-FIELD
Electric or E-field – The high impedance, or electric, component of an electromagnetic wave. An E-Field induces a change of a shield. Compare MAGNETIC or H-FIELD.
Electrolytic Corrosion – Corrosion which occurs when a DC current flows between two metals in the presence of a conducting fluid, electrolyte. The rate of corrosion does not depend on the metals (they may be the same) but upon the amount of current and the nature of the corrosive fluid. Compare GALVANIC CORROSION.
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – The ability of electronic equipment or systems to operate in their intended operational environments without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation because of unintentional electromagnetic radiation or response.
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI)
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) – Any electromagnetic interference, periodic or random, which may have a disturbing influence on devices exposed to it.
ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP)
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) – Broadband, high-intensity, transient electromagnetic fields such as those produced by lightning and nuclear explosions.
Electrostatic Charge – An electric charge accumulated on an object, usually by friction.
Elongation – The fractional increase in length of a material stressed in tension.
Emulsion – A suspension of one fluid in another.
Expanded Metal – A technique whereby metal foil or sheet material is pierced with a pattern of small slits and stretched, or expanded, to yield a screen consisting of one unbroken piece of metal.
Filler – Generally, material added to another material in order to improve its existing properties or add new ones. In the case of conductive elastomers silver or carbon is introduced to add electrical conductivity.
Flash – The excess material on a rubber part resulting from rubber being forced out of the mould cavity during the moulding operation.
Fluorosilicone – A synthetic rubber useful in applications involving petroleum oils and fuels and silicone oils.
Full Integrity – Said of an enclosure when all seams, joints and apertures are completely sealed or covered so as to provide no degradation in electromagnetic shielding performance.
g Gram – (metric unit of mass).
g/cm – Gram per cubic centimetre. Metric expression for density (mass per unit volume).
Galvanic Corrosion – Corrosion which occurs between two dissimilar metals in the presence of moisture or some other electrolyte. Under these conditions an electrochemical cell is formed and current will flow from one metal to the other carrying ions of the metal with it.
Gasket – EMI A material, or combination of materials, which conducts electricity and which is used to ensure a continuous low-impedance contact between two surfaces which conduct electromagnetic energy.
Ground – A reference potential to which all signal and power voltages are established.
Grounding – The establishment of an electrically conductive path between two points, with one point generally being a reference point.
Groundplane – A conductive surface or plate used as a common reference point for circuit returns and electrical or signal potentials.
Hertz (Hz) – A unit of frequency which is equivalent to one cycle per second (1/s).
H-Field – See MAGNETIC FIELD.
Honeycomb – A low air resistance core material used in EMI shielding air vent panels. Generally made of aluminium, brass, or steel, the material consists of multiple hexagonal cells operating as wave-guides below cut-off. The material offers extremely low resistance to airflow and high shielding effectiveness.
Hydroscopic – Tending to absorb moisture.
Impedance (Z) – The total opposition offered by a compound or circuit to the flow of an alternating or varying current. Impedance Z is expressed in ohms and is a combination of resistance R and reactance X, computed as Z=R +Z . Impedance is also computed as Z=E/1, where E is applied a-c voltage and 1 is the resulting current. In computations, impedance is handled as a complex ratio of voltage to current.
Impingment Filter – An air filter coated with a viscous fluid to improve its dust attestance and holding capacity.
Insertion Loss – The loss in power due to the insertion of a gasket, window, or vent panel in a seam, joint, or aperture. Generally expressed as the ratio in decibels of the power received before insertion to the power received after insertion.
Iridite – See CHROMATE CONVERSION COATING
MAGNETIC or H-FIELD
Magnetic or H-Field – The low impedance, or magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave. A magnetic field induces current in a shield. Compare ELECTRIC or E-FIELD. MIL 0.001 inch.
Monel – An alloy of nickel and copper
Neoprene or Polychloroprene Rubber. A general-purpose polymer with many desirable characteristics, including high resilience with low compression set and flame resistance. Attacked by ozone and various hydrocarbon fluids including jet fuels.
Nominal – A stated value as opposed to an actual one. Values expressed as nominals may actually express a mid point between two limits, or an average, normal, or typical value.
OHM-cm – A unit of material volume resistivity.
Permeability – (u) A relative measure of the ability of a material to serve as a path for magnetic lines of force based on air=1. Permeability is the magnetic induction B in gauss divided by the magnetising force H in oersteds.
Plane Wave – A simple wave in which all points normal to the direction of propagation are in phase.
Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive – An adhesive which, under normal conditions of temperature and humidity, remains tacky. Used on gasket materials as a positioning aid during equipment assembly. It is not intended to be used for permanent mounting. See DRY BACK.
Pot Life – The period of time during which a reacting plastic or rubber compound remains suitable for application after a reaction with an initiating agent or hardener
Radiation – Electromagnetic energy, such as light waves, sound waves, radio waves, x-rays, infrared and thermal waves travelling through a medium or through space.
RADIO WAVES (or Hertzian Waves)
Radio Waves (or Hertzian Waves) – Electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 300GHz propagated in space without artificial guide.
Reflection – The loss of electromagnetic energy due to reflection at the air-metal boundary of a shield. The efficiency of the reflecting shield is a complex function of the wave and shield impedance. Compare ABSORPTION.
Relative Conductivity – A comparative measure of electrical conductivity based on copper=1.
Resiliency – The ratio of energy input is a rapid instantaneous full recovery of a deformed specimen.
RFI Radio Frequency Interference.
RFI Radio Frequency Interference – Electromagnetic interference (EMI) within the frequency ranges 3kHz to 300 GHz. RH Relative humidity.
RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanising)
RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanising) – An Elastomeric adhesive which cures at room temperature about 23º C.
Shield – Electrically conductive materials placed around a circuit, component, or cable to suppress the effect of an electromagnetic field within or beyond definite regions.
Shielding Effectiveness – The effectiveness of a given material as a shield under a specific set of conditions, measured in decibels (dB).
Shore – A scale used for the measurement of hardness with a Durometer.
The image below gives a good indication of the shore hardness scale.
Silicones – Polymeric materials in which the recurring chemical group contains silicon and oxygen atoms as links in the main chain.
Sintered – Metal particles fused together under pressure at a temperature below their melting points. Sn/Cu/Fe Tin coated, copper-clad steel wire used to make EMI gasket materials.
Stress Relaxation – The decreases in stress after a given time at constant strain.
Stripline – A type of transmission line which consists of a single narrow conductor, parallel and equidistant to one or two wide ground planes.
Surface Resistivity – The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface.
Tear Strength – The maximum force required to tear a specified specimen the force acting substantially parallel to the major axis of the test specimen.
Tensile Strength – The maximum tensile stress applied during stretching a specimen to rupture.
Thermoplastic – A term used to describe those materials that can be repeatedly made to flow under the application of heat.
Thermosetting – A term used to describe plastic materials that are capable of being changed into substantially infusible or insoluble products when cured by application of heat or by chemical means. Once cured, the plastic cannot be made to flow.
Thixotropic – Describes materials that are gel-like at rest but fluid when agitated.
Toggle Boot – A component designed to provide EMI shielding and moisture sealing for toggle switches.
Viscosity – The resistance of a material to flow under stress.
Volume Resistivity – The electrical resistance between opposite faces of a centimetre cube of material, commonly expressed in ohm-centimetres (ohm-cm).
W.G – Water gauge.
Wicking – Capillary absorption of liquid (including water) along fibres or holes in a base material.
W/m-K – Watt per meter-Kelvin (metric unit thermal conductivity).